DAY 1 - INITIAL IDEAS/Braingstorming

Notes from Philip Langshaw

8:30 - Brainstorming as a start we've begun narrowing down our choices for a singlular topic of focus. As of now we're still deciding between transport to and from mars and agriculture/food production for our product. Kieran and Ben are strongly proposing for agriculture as they believe it would be easier to provide answers to immediate issues that would be harder to overcome with transport that wouldn't break the laws of physics (E.g. Space elevator).

9:00 -  It's decided, agriculture is the way to go, as such we've started ALL the issues involved and how a potential greenhouse can solve this

-  Atmospheric hostility to most plant and crop life

-  Water access

-  Solar radiation

-  Soil nutrients

-  Temperature

-  Human Diet

-  Photosynthesis

-  Foreign Microbes

-  Gravity

-  Seasons/Sprowt Times


A Change of Plan? - Ben, Nick and John have all suggested to move the Callisto, Jupiter's second largest moon, as it would be a more suitable move in comaprison to mars. Although much colder than Mars, it possess a much more accessbile supply of water in the form of frozen ice caps, whereas on mars there are very few pools of water on the surface that wouldn't be depleted after a few short years. In addition although it is colder, we believe the temperature is an easier variable to fix rather than the access of water.

Yet Another Change of Plan - After a while of debating with reasoned arguments we have moved back to Mars, as the requirement to find a large continous pool of water would be to drill 50km down. Althought this is much deeper than the Kola Superdeep Borehole (the deepest hole ever dug at 12km), it would be required on Callisto that to obtain geothermal energy (as it is too far out of range for reliable solar energy) that we drill even DEEPER through 100km of ocean as well to reach a single geothermal vent, which would be far more unrealistic, not to mention difficult to do. 

In the runnings for some other planets we considered were Titan, Europa and Ganymede, the other three moons around Saturn as they each possessed various advantages over another (E.g. Orbit, atmosphere, temperature, etc.) however all inevitably faced the same problem of drilling like Castillo.

Roles - We have seperated and split off into certain disiplines related to our science to form our project

-  Nick Jenneke (Terraforming/Makeup of Planets) PRESENTATION

-  Kieran Corrcoran (Nutrition and Diet) PRESENTATION

-  Ben Gill (Designer of Greenhouse) FINAL PRODUCT

-  Jonathan Motsos (Designer of Greenhouse) FINAL PRODUCT

-  Philip Langshaw (Agriculture) PRESENTATION


We've continued to progress through our project by all collectively deciding on a greenhouse as the best way to produce most of the crops, and subsiquent nutrientsm to sustain a colony for a hopefully very large amount of time to avoid any concerns of continous resupply and stocking. We've added various systems to ensure that it each of the crops survive and to combat each of the hostile features of the martian environment.

Notes From Nick 

Planning Stage Initial Ideas

- Agriculture

- Transport

- Building colonies

We Decided On:

- Growing food on Mars

- How to sustain food growth

- Variety of foods (vegan diet)

- Completely sustainable --> No fossil fuels

- Hydroponic greenhouse

- Infinite water supply? --> Filtered water --> Ice caps?

- Soil fertility

- Solar panels

- Crickets/insects for protein

Considered the Moons Callisto, Euorpa and Titan

- All with icy crusts

- Callisto has a saltwater ocean under the crust

- Europa has a liquid ocean under the crust

- Titan had similar properties

Went Back to the Mars Idea

- Hydroponic greenhouse

- Drill to get water

- Recycable water system

- Vegetables e.g. Crickets and insects


Notes From Kieran

Initial Ideas Mars:

We began today with brainstorming of ideas for the project. We came to the conclusion that we wanted to base our project on agriculture on Mars. Our vision was to replicate a fully sustainable agricultural set up that would be able to sustain colony for an indefinite amount of time. Using crickets and insects for Tprotein. Possibility of artificial, cultured meat. Issues: We've arrived at the issue of water and how to have a large enough storage to sustain a colony. We believed that the ice caps on Mars could be a viable but found that these ice caps were made of frozen carbon dioxide. Due to this issue we came to the conclusion that we would not be able to do this idea on Mars so decided to move this project to Callisto or Europa two of Jupiter's moons.


One of Jupiter's moons Has a large amount of frozen water. Has a molten core with vents can get geothermal energy with it. However the depth of the ocean is over 100 km. The conclusion is that Mars would be the most viable option due to us having to drill tens of kilometres anyway.

Food Itself:

Our base of food would be from farming crops. One of the main soucres as well will be crickets and other insects. In the second part of the lesson we began the creation phase of the actual greenhouse in preparation for 3D printing the thung itself.


- Myself: Diet and nutrition needed.

- Phil: Agriculture Jono: Design/3D printing

- Ben: Design/3D printing

- Nick: Energy source and chemist

Solar Panels:

Having 6 solar panels Back up for geothermal


The majority of our energy will be from geotehrmal from underneath Mars' core.

Notes from Jonathan

To Mars & Beyond Planning/brainstorming:

Green house models, can't bring meat therefore putting us on a vegan diet in turn making our poo fertile, cultured/artificial meat for protein. Sustainable greenhouse.


Crickets (protein)

Initially started with mars then decided to look for other moons/planets due to mars not having reradily available drinkable water (CO2 ice caps)

Europa (candidate)

Ganymede (candidate)

Callisto (candidate)

Titan (candidate)





Starting off the day we each returned to our computer lab to assist Ben and John in guiding the structure of the printed model. Kieran, Nick and I also continued our research and started to pad out each part of the presentation which would conclude with our final product of the greenhouse print.

We started off the presentation outlining the problems we first ran into (as stated as above) and followed up witht he conditions of mars to set the bassis for the porblems we'd need to fix to run a successful greenhouse.

Carbon dioxide: 95.97%

Argon: 1.93%

Nitrogen: 1.89%

Oxygen: 0.146%

Carbon monoxide: 0.0557%

Temperature: Winter = -125ºC

                      Summer = 20ºC


- Growing plants without soil (in perlite)
- Avoids having to use martian soil
- Filtered, recyclable water system
- Lighting system (Red and Blue light to increase photosynthetic absorption)
- Heating system (Simulate seasons on Earth)

- Solves problems relating to photosynthesis, temperature & soil

Water Access

- Drill down to underwater lake to extract water source and impliment a pump system

- Will sustain the crops for an extended period of time, capable of sustaining a colony

Microbes on Mars

- Filters on water pipes and extraction pumps are required to avoid contamination with potential  extraterrestrial organisms
- These organisms that could exist within the underwater lake and elsewhere on the planet could contaminate and compromise the crops


Air Filtration & Radiation

- Tungsten and plastic surroundings to protect from harmful rays of radiation

- Most of the atmosphere can support plant life already, the temperature just restricts this from happening.
- Through a filter system C02 can enter the greenhouse, however the filter will stop before the vent compromises the temperature and pressure.

Solar Panels

- 6 solar panels can produce around 666kwh of energy per month which would be enough to sustain the light and heat needs of the greenhouse

- This is only ONE way that this greenhouse will develop energy as dust storms over time could damage and reduce the ability for sunlight to reach the solar cells.

Geothermal Energy

- There is a nearby volcano on the southern pole. (Hadriacus Mons)
- Evidence of Pyroclastic rock in the region)
- Pump water through a pipe into the ground near a volcanic hotspot which circulates around and comes back up into the greenhouse
- The water heats up whilst underground and returns to a compact generator
- The hot water can contribute to the heating system


- There are 7 essential nutrients
- These are: Water, carbohydrates, protein (essential amino acids), fats, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids.
- Water would be taken from our water source and would also be recycled and filtered to hydrate the colony.
- We will farm crickets as a source of protein - contain all essential amino acids
- We will have spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, soybeans, bok choy, asparagus and wheat for vitamins and minerals.
- To account for carbohydrates we will have potatoes.
- We will also have edamame for essential fats

Final product

- After approximately 4 hours of 3D printing our model was printed (as can bee seen below)

- Unfortunately due to size constraints a lot of the detail we wanted to position on the model wasn't visible and resulted in a fairly simplistic product


At last we presented and ran slightly over, we should've skimmed over more of the presentation and not gone into such extreme detail that wouldn't have mattered a lot in comparison.